Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior to Examine Factors Influencing Intention to Purchase Halal Chocolate Among Malaysian Muslims

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Wan Rasyidah Wan Nawang
Syadiyah Abdul Shukor
Amalina Mursidi
Anita Ismail


Manuscript type: Research paper
Research aims: The purpose of this study is to examine factors influencing
intention to purchase halal chocolate among Muslim consumers in
Malaysia by extending the classical Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB).
This study specifically investigates the influence of attitude, subjective
norms, perceived behavioural control, halal knowledge, habit, and
religiosity on the intention to purchase halal chocolate.
Design/Methodology/Approach: A total of 252 valid responses were
obtained through convenience sampling and analysed using SmartPLS
Research findings: The results indicate that attitude, subjective norms,
and religiosity are the factors that influence purchase intention for halal
chocolate, while perceived behavioural control, halal knowledge, and
habit do not. Subjective norms have the strongest influence on purchase
intention for halal chocolate, followed by attitude.
Theoretical contribution/Originality: The findings contribute to the
growing literature on halal food and consumer behaviour. In particular,
the study provides empirical evidence on the importance of attitudes,
subjective norms, and religiosity in influencing purchase intentions for
halal chocolate.
Practitioner/Policy implications: This study could serve as a basis for
halal chocolate manufacturers, retailers, exporters, and importers to
better understand Malaysian Muslim customers and the factors that
drive them to purchase halal chocolate. Furthermore, the government and
related agencies, such as the Malaysian Cocoa Board (MCB), could devise
strategies to re-establish and strengthen the country’s cocoa industry,
allowing Malaysia to reclaim its position as the world’s leading cocoa
Research limitation/Implication: This study includes six variables that
influence halal chocolate purchase intention. Future studies could include
other internal and external factors influencing purchase intention, such as
the role of the halal certification logo


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