Asian Journal of Business and Accounting 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 AJBA Open Journal Systems <p>The Asian Journal of Business and Accounting (AJBA) is an international refereed journal, published twice a year by the <a title="fba" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Faculty of Business and Economics , (formerly known as Faculty of Business and Accounting)</a> <a title="um" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universiti Malaya</a>, Malaysia. Its aim is to publish scholarly business research on issues which are relevant to the Asian region, particularly those providing practical implications to promote better business decision making and public policy formulation.</p> <p> The journal covers a broad spectrum of business and accounting areas and its sub-areas. A suggestive (not necessarily comprehensive) list of areas include: auditing, banking, business strategy, corporate governance, entrepreneurship, finance and investments, financial and management accounting, financial economics, human resource management, information management, innovation and technology management, international business management, marketing, consumer behavior, operations and production management, organisational behaviour, public sector accounting, risk and insurance, strategic management, taxation, and tourism and hospitality.</p> <p><strong>E-ISSN: 2180-3137</strong><br /><strong>Print ISSN: 1985-4064</strong><br /><strong>Publisher: University of Malaya</strong><br /><strong>Publication type: Print &amp; Electronic</strong><br /><strong>Publication frequency: 2 time(s) per year (June and December)</strong><br /><strong>Journal Website: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></strong></p> <p> <img src="" alt="" width="111" height="102" /> <img src="" alt="" width="174" height="90" /> <img src="" alt="" width="173" height="50" /><img src="" alt="" width="188" height="65" /> <img src="" alt="" width="152" height="61" /></p> Accounting Conservatism and Income Smoothing after the Japanese Sarbanes– Oxley Act 2024-06-26T09:54:33+08:00 Ian Eddie <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: The Japanese Sarbanes-Oxley Act (J-SOX) was<br>implemented for the fiscal years ending on or after March 31, 2009 to<br>ensure the reliability of financial reporting by listed firms. This study<br>examines the effect of J-SOX on financial reporting quality, proxied by<br>accounting conservatism and income smoothing.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: This study conducts empirical analyses<br>using a sample of Japanese listed firms with fiscal year-ends of March<br>31 from 2007 to 2010. We obtain financial data and stock price data from<br>the Nikkei NEEDS Financial QUEST, stock return data from NPM Monthly<br>Stock Return Data, and auditor data from eol. The sample consists of 7,752<br>and 7,594 firm-years regarding accounting conservatism, and 7,380 firmyears<br>regarding income smoothing. We perform multiple regression<br>analyses with a dummy variable for the post-J-SOX period to compare<br>the levels of accounting conservatism and income smoothing between the<br>pre- and post-J-SOX periods.<br>Research findings: We find that accounting conservatism increased and<br>income smoothing decreased immediately after J-SOX implementation.<br>In additional analyses, we extend the sample period to 2012 and find<br>the evidence indicating that the increasing effect of J-SOX on accounting<br>conservatism may have persisted, but the decreasing effect on income<br>smoothing has not persisted. These findings suggest that financial<br>reporting quality in Japanese firms may have improved following J-SOX<br>implementation through increased accounting conservatism (timely loss<br>recognition).<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study adds new evidence<br>to the literature regarding the effect of internal control regulations on<br>managerial accounting behaviour.<br>Practitioner/Policy implication: Our findings suggest that J-SOX may be<br>effective in improving financial reporting quality although the procedures<br>are relatively concise. Therefore, policy makers and accounting standard<br>setters should consider not only strictness but also cost-effectiveness.<br>Research limitation/Implications: We cannot rule out the possibility that<br>factors other than J-SOX occurred during our study period affected our<br>results.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Operating Cash Flows, Board Characteristics and Adoption of IR 4.0 Technologies 2024-06-26T10:05:07+08:00 Shu-Fen Chuah Char-Lee Lok Chee-Wooi Hooy <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study examines the effect of operating cash flows<br>(OCF) on firm innovation, as represented by the adoption of fourth<br>industrial revolution (IR4.0) technologies. Board characteristics that act as<br>corporate governance mechanisms are introduced as moderators.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: The study sample consists of 954<br>publicly listed firms traded on Bursa Malaysia in 2019. The logistic and<br>linear regression models are employed.<br>Research findings: Our study found that increasing OCF encourages<br>firm innovation. Both logistic and linear regressions show that board<br>size and board independence are positive moderators, while multiple<br>directorships and busy boards are negative. Chairman-CEO duality has<br>a direct negative impact on firm innovation and negatively moderates the<br>relationship between OCF and IR4.0 adoption in linear regression.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study proposed that the<br>adoption of IR4.0 technologies could be observed via (i) the hiring of<br>key personnel with IR4.0 experience, (ii) the appointment of a chief<br>information officer (CIO), (iii) the establishment of the technology<br>committee, and (iv) the acquisition of IR4.0 technology. The positive<br>findings highlight the importance of “quantity” within the board—having<br>a larger board size and more independent directors establishes a stronger<br>connection between the firm and additional resources, reinforcing the<br>positive association between operating cash flows and firm innovation.<br>Conversely, the “quality” of the board is equally vital. Chairman-<br>CEO duality, multiple directorships, and busy boards are shown to<br>reduce monitoring quality, thereby exerting a negative influence on the<br>relationship between operating cash flows and firm innovation.<br>Practitioner/Policy implication: This study reveals approaches firms<br>could undertake to welcome IR4.0 and improve firms’ corporate<br>governance policies, particularly those related to board-level policies<br>such as board size, board independence, chairman-CEO duality, multiple<br>directorships and busy board.<br>Research limitation: It is challenging to quantify firm innovation. The<br>mentioned approaches may only partially reflect the firms’ adoption of<br>IR4.0 technologies.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Corporate Social Responsibility in the Formal Strategic Planning of South African Listed Companies 2024-06-26T10:43:38+08:00 Md Humayun Kabir <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study investigates the relationship between formal<br>strategic planning and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the South<br>African context, considering JSE-listed companies.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: This study employed multiple-scale<br>items with a five-point Likert scale to measure CSR and formal strategic<br>planning. A chi-square test was performed to test the significance of the<br>relationship between the variables.<br>Research findings: The analysis of all South African listed companies<br>(i.e., JSE-listed companies) revealed that formal strategic planning is<br>significantly associated with CSR, suggesting that CSR concerns are<br>addressed during the formal strategic planning process.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: The respondents are only limited<br>to JSE-listed companies and the findings are related to the links only<br>between formal strategic planning and CSR.<br>Practitioner/Policy implication: The JSE is the largest stock exchange in<br>Africa. Thus, it is becoming increasingly important for them to maintain<br>their corporate reputation with stakeholders. Accordingly, addressing<br>stakeholders’ demand for CSR through the formal strategic planning<br>process would benefit the organisation is vital.<br>Originality/Value: This study contributes a deep intuitive knowledge of<br>companies’ perceptions of CSR demonstrations by considering formal<br>strategic planning in the South African context.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Determinants of Public Investment Decision in Forex Robots Trading: Evidence from Indonesia 2024-06-26T10:48:04+08:00 Uus Ahmad Husaeni Dwidja Priyatno Saptaning Ruju Paminto Hasbu Naim Syaddad <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study aims to analyse the factors that influence<br>investment decisions on forex trading robot users in Indonesia by<br>using four factors that influence investment decisions: financial literacy,<br>investment knowledge, financial behaviour, and risk tolerance.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: The method used in this research is<br>quantitative with a survey approach. The data analysis technique used<br>Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) through the Partial Least Square<br>(PLS) approach. The data collection technique was carried out by<br>distributing questionnaires with a Google form on the WA Forex robot<br>trading user group. In the end, 200 users filled out the questionnaire.<br>Research findings: This study shows that financial literacy and<br>investment knowledge significantly influence public decisions.<br>Meanwhile, financial behaviour and risk tolerance do not significantly<br>affect people’s investment decisions in forex robot trading. This shows<br>that forex trading robot users have good financial literacy and investment<br>knowledge in deciding to invest. However, trading robot users have<br>financial behaviour that tends to be wrong, so they are tempted to profit<br>that is promised by 10-60 percent every month by forex trading robot<br>companies without paying attention to the risk tolerance of the amount of<br>property they invest. As a result, if the return from investment encounters<br>obstacles, forex trading robot users will experience financial difficulties.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study provides information that can help potential investors be careful and understand the risks when investing using forex trading robots. Research on investment decisions on forex trading robots in Indonesia is the first research that has been conducted due to the proliferation of companies offering forex trading robots that have led to Scams or Ponzi Schemes so that investors are harmed.<br>Practitioner/Policy implication: The government of the Republic of Indonesia is to immediately pass the Law on the Use of Trading Robots in Indonesia so that it becomes the basis for the legality of trading using robots. Meanwhile, for the investment community using trading robots, even though trading robots promise large profits, they have weaknesses that allow the public to experience financial losses.<br>Research limitations/Implications: Future research can consider the UTAUT model in measuring investment decisions in trading robots in Indonesia. Research regarding trading robots needs to be carried out continuously as public literacy material to avoid investment models that end in Ponzi schemes—also using a legal approach to be able to explain the criteria for trading robot providers that are close to or by the legislation in Indonesia which is currently being drafted.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Research on Effects of Board of Directors’ Characteristics on Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure - Manufacturing Listed Firms on the Stock Exchange of Vietnam 2024-06-26T10:54:30+08:00 Pham Thi Buch Thu <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study aims to assess how corporate governance<br>characteristics affect the disclosure of corporate social responsibility (CSR)<br>among manufacturing companies listed on the stock market of Vietnam.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: The study analyses the annual reports of<br>195 companies listed on the Vietnam stock market between 2018 and 2022,<br>to investigate the influence of board size, board independence, women on<br>board, board meetings, managerial ownership, and female leadership on<br>corporate social responsibility disclosure (CSRD). The Fixed Effects Model<br>(FEM) and Random Effects Model (REM) were employed to determine the<br>optimal model. Subsequently, defects and regression were analysed using<br>the General Least Squares (GLS) model.<br>Research findings: The findings reveal that the managerial ownership<br>factor has the most substantial negative impact on CSRD; followed by the<br>female leadership a positive influence on CSRD. Lastly, the board size<br>factor has a positive effect on CSRD, with a significant alignment with<br>previous research. Additionally, board independence, women on board,<br>and board meetings have an insignificant influence on CSRD.<br>Theoretical contribution: Based on the findings, manufacturing<br>companies listed on the stock market of Vietnam demonstrate a level<br>of corporate social responsibility disclosure that is slightly below<br>average (47.9%). The findings revealed that the involvement of women<br>in management becomes meaningful when they possess actual control,<br>whereas their mere presence on boards does not affect CSR disclosure.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: The results provide valuable insights for<br>policymakers in identifying the corporate governance characteristics that<br>can foster CSR reporting in Vietnamese listed companies.<br>Research limitation/Implications: The research relied on annual CSR<br>reporting as a metric to assess CSR disclosure, disregarding various<br>other communication channels used by companies to communicate their<br>CSR initiatives. Furthermore, the study did not assess the disparity in<br>CSRD levels across various types of enterprises and different scales of<br>businesses.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Deciphering Consumer-Based Brand Equity, Brand Preference, and Intentions in Algeria’s Home Appliance Market 2024-06-26T11:41:17+08:00 Amina Elfekair Mohammed Fellahi Sofiane Laradi <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: Consumer-based brand equity (CBBE) and purchase<br>intention are two significant concepts in marketing research that have recently received notable attention from scholars and managers alike. Still, few studies have been conducted in Algeria with a specific focus on the home appliance category. This paper aims to explore the linkages between dimensions of CBBE dimensions (i.e., brand awareness/associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty) and brand preference and the role of brand preference in shaping purchase intention in the context of home appliance brands in Algeria.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: The study conducted a quantitative research approach after collecting data from 294 householders. The PLS- SEM statistical approach is used to test the developed hypotheses.<br>Research findings: The findings reveal that CBBE dimensions positively and significantly influence brand preference. Furthermore, brand preference positively influences purchase intention.<br>Theoretical contribution: The study contributes to the understanding of brand dynamics and consumer behaviour in specific market settings of home appliances.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: The findings offer insights to brand managers and marketers of home appliances in different cultures, empowering them to develop an effective competitive positioning that crafts customer positive responses and drives sales growth.<br>Research limitation/Implication: Rather than including only preferences<br>and intentions, other behavioural and market outcomes may overlook the potential effect of CBBE such as defending negative information and market share; the study was conducted using qualitative and cross- sectional methods, qualitative methods would provide more insights into CBBE and attribute-based preferences.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Assessment of Usability and Service Quality in E-Commerce Using the Integration of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) 2024-06-26T11:52:00+08:00 Alfian Abdul Ghaffar Indrawati <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study aims to identify evaluation criteria for<br>e-commerce platforms and determine the top-performing platform in the<br>Indonesian marketplace.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: The research employs a quantitative<br>approach, utilising the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the<br>Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)<br>model analysis. It involves analysing data from 100 respondents who are<br>users of Shopee, Tokopedia, and Bukalapak e-commerce platforms.<br>Research findings: The findings suggest that the Usability criterion<br>outperforms E-ServQual in terms of scores. Based on the AHP and<br>TOPSIS techniques, Tokopedia, Shopee, and Bukalapak are ranked as the<br>top three e-commerce platforms.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study contributes to<br>understanding the importance of usability in evaluating e-commerce<br>platforms and provides insights into customer preferences. It also<br>demonstrates the sequential integration of AHP and TOPSIS techniques<br>for evaluating multiple criteria.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: This study reveals that Satisfaction,<br>Efficiency, and Learnability are crucial sub-criteria for customers when<br>selecting an e-commerce platform. Improving these aspects can enhance<br>consumer purchasing power and improve the overall user experience.<br>Research limitation/Implications: The limitation of the study is<br>its geographic scope, as it was conducted solely in the Jakarta and<br>Yogyakarta regions. Additionally, the research exclusively employs the<br>AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order<br>Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution) methods.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model to Study Investors’ Buying Behaviour Towards Mutual Funds 2024-06-26T11:59:33+08:00 Pushpa Raj K Shyamaladevi Balakrishnan <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: In recent years, we have witnessed tremendous growth in mutual funds in India. There are many reasons behind this<br>growth trajectory, including diversification, compounding, and a lesser involvement of investors in tracking the performances of individual stocks. Technology has allowed investors to choose their funds based on their risk appetite and tenure when they need their investments to mature. The current advancement in digital technology created a more accessible platform for investors to choose different investment vehicles quickly. Mutual funds are among the most well-liked investment choices, for small-scale investors, as they offer steady income over a more extended period with lesser risk. Digitalisation has led more investors to move towards mutual funds as it involves less paperwork to start investing. Also, digital payments have eased investors’ lives by allowing them to make payments safely and securely without needing to reach Asset Management Companies (AMCs). In this study, we have attempted to study the impact of different variables that affect mutual fund subscriptions.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: To demonstrate the causal connection between the various variables, the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique has been employed. We employed a variance-based technique using PLS in our study. With the aid of SmartPLS 3.0, the study model was verified. We follow the normal two-step process, with the first step being the assessment of the measurement model and the second stage is to evaluate models for measurements and structures.<br>Research findings: The two new additional variables introduced in this study were strongly significant in influencing investors’ intention toward Mutual funds. When making decisions about their buying behaviour in the mutual fund industry, retail investors consider data security and additional charges to be key factors. The researcher performed reliability and validity tests, as well as assessed the structural model. The coefficients of determination R2 and Q2 supported the study model and provided evidence of a significant statistical relationship between the independent and dependent variables.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: The present study is important as we see more mutual fund folios are getting piled up every year. Also, with the advent of technology, more account holders are getting into digital space. Understanding the awareness and benefits of using digital platforms among retail investors’ decision-making is essential to bringing in more retail participation in the mutual fund industry.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: These findings can help investors to make investing decisions and are also helpful for regulators or fund managers to attract more investors.<br>Research limitation/Implications: The study can be extended to different regions in India or outside of India to study different perceptions of retail mutual fund investors.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Preparing Accountants of the Future: Examining an Accounting Data and Analytics Undergraduate Program in Singapore 2024-06-26T12:05:27+08:00 Poh-Sun Seow Gary Pan Clarence Goh Magdeleine Lew <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: Due to technological innovations, there is a need for<br>universities to produce accounting graduates who are proficient in data<br>and analytics. A university in Singapore launched the accounting data<br>and analytics (AD&amp;A) second major program to provide students with<br>skillsets in data and analytics. The aim of this study is to examine the<br>efficacy of the AD&amp;A program.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: 100 participants were surveyed,<br>involving 70 graduates of the program and 30 employers.<br>Research findings: The results show that both graduates and employers<br>were satisfied with the program. The results also show that the program<br>adequately equips graduates with relevant skills and competencies,<br>reflecting current needs in the accounting profession.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study examines a new<br>program in accounting data and analytics. Universities need to ensure<br>that their accounting curricula remain relevant.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: This study is timely as the need for<br>accountants to become more tech-savvy and conversant with data has<br>been identified as an important way to help the accounting profession<br>thrive amid digital transformation.<br>Research limitation: The results may not be generalised to other similar<br>programs in other universities.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sustainable Performance: Evidence of SMEs in Indonesia 2024-06-26T12:12:34+08:00 Maya Indriastuti Andi Riansyah <p>Manuscript type: Research paper<br>Research aims: This study aims to analyse the influence of green accounting and intellectual capital on sustainable performance, with financial performance as an intervening variable.<br>Design/Methodology/Approach: This research used 251 samples of Batik SMEs located in 4 cities/regencies in Central Java, Indonesia they are Semarang City, Semarang Regency, Solo City and Pekalongan Regency, which were analysed using SmartPLS.<br>Research findings: The research results show that green accounting has a negative effect on financial performance and sustainable performance, while intellectual capital has a positive impact on financial performance and sustainable performance. Financial performance has a positive effect on sustainable performance.<br>Theoretical contribution/Originality: This study contributes to achieving sustainable performance for organisations by improving processes, conveying information, and stimulating relationships between stakeholders that positively impact environmental and social performance.<br>Practitioner/Policy implications: This research implies that the presence of intellectual capital in SMEs improves financial performance and realises sustainable performance by considering efforts to protect the environment, reduce carbon footprints, and invest in environmentally responsible businesses.<br>Research limitation/Implication: This research is still limited to SMEs in 4 cities/regencies in Central Java, Indonesia, namely Semarang City, Semarang Regency, Solo City and Pekalongan Regency.</p> 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Editors Note 2024-06-26T12:30:59+08:00 Norbani Che Ha Yeong Wai Chung 2024-06-30T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2024